Procedural RPG World Generation


Having now completed my MSc, below is a brief summary of my dissertation project along with galleries and a video of the prototype. There’s also a download of the full report detailing the implementation process along with background on the topic for those interested in procedural content generation or studying something related.




Since the days of Rogue, and Elite, games have utilised various procedural content generation techniques to create game worlds for players to explore, freeing developers from the hand-crafted approach typically seen in the majority of games. For me, it was the second Elder Scrolls game, Daggerfall in ’96 that inspired me enough to prompt this topic choice for my MSc dissertation project. Although Daggerfall was most certainly a flawed game, the sheer size of the game world is still unsurpassed even today, being roughly 162 square kilometers (about half the size of the Great Britain) and featuring over 15,000 towns, villages and dungeons. An amusing rumor is that it’s so big that you can fit every other subsequent Elder Scrolls game world into a pixel on Daggerfall’s world map.

When you have a game world that big, procedural content generation (PCG) is the only feasible way to populate it. Daggerfall’s world was generated ‘offline’ and shipped on the game media, making the world the same every time you played it. It’s main story-line areas and characters were hand-crafted, but the rest of its towns, dungeons and wilderness areas were all generated.

Scale comparison of the Elder Scrolls games.

Scale comparison of the Elder Scrolls games.

What I wanted to do, is to tackle a project that aimed to generate an RPG world in real-time so each world would be unique, and ultimately create an explorable 3D RPG world generator. What I actually wanted to do was create a full RPG game to play within these generated worlds (i.e. my dream game), but clearly this would never have been feasible in the time-frame and so I settled for a compromise by removing any game mechanics or AI from the project, effectively stripping out the ‘game’ aspect. Even with this, the project workload was going to be ridiculous considering I wanted to use my own DirectX engine and use it to generate the world, complete with dungeons, NPC towns and a day/night cycle.

Unlike most of my previous projects, there wasn’t going to be much focus on graphics and that actually fit nicely with my retro vision for a more modern looking Daggerfall-esque game, complete with sprites…lots of sprite.

My report can be found at the top of this post if you’re curious about some of the techniques I used in the prototype. I had little knowledge of how other games have really approached this from a technical point of view, other that what I had uncovered during my research on the topic. The developed prototype is therefore very much my own approach.

Since, the detail is all in the above report, I’ll just briefly mention some of the techniques the prototype involved:

The world generation itself was created using a procedural noise technique to generate a height-map. Multiple octaves of value noise are combined (Fractional Brownian motion) to create a resulting fractal noise suitable for generating realistic terrain formations. The noise implementation I used was specifically Voronoise, a method that combines a value grid-based noise type and a ‘jittered’ grid version of Voronoi (cellular noise) into an single adjustable function. I introduced a seed value into the noise generation to allow for reproducibility of worlds, given the same seed. The height-map is output in the pixel shader to a render target upon generation, and then used during the tessellation shader stages via patch control-point displacement when rendering the world.


Summation of noise octaves.


A variety of generated worlds.

The prototype’s generated world size is not huge like Daggerfall, but it’s a fair size at around 16,777 square km. That’s a little under half the size of Skyrim’s world for example, but for a little prototype I’m happy with this and it still allows plenty of explorable terrain using the appropriate movement speed and not the super fast one as seen in my video!

Dungeons use a completely different generation method that I implemented off the top of my head after looking into various techniques. It’s an agent-based technique that uses diggers to burrow out corridors and rooms, with various rules thrown in to keep them in-check to ensure they generate sensible looking dungeons. They are also responsible for spawning the dungeons contents which include monsters and treasure chests and the up and down stairs. Here are some ASCII representations of the dungeon layouts generated by the method:


The world is divided up into 32×32 terrain chunks that are each responsible for hosting their respective game objects such as flora, fauna, towns and dungeon entrances. For performance purposes frustum culling was a necessity due to the large scale of the terrain, and only chunks visible in the frustum are processed. Each chunk has a chance of creating towns and/or dungeons and checks such as suitably flat terrain are important factors in determining this. Each building performs a suitability check on the terrain mesh at a chosen spot to see if its within the gradient threshold, and if so places a random structure. If enough buildings are present in a town, NPCs will spawn within proximity of the town.

I added a few small graphical enhancements to the game such as faked atmospheric scattering, fog, layered sky domes, water and emission mapped buildings at night. They are each detailed in the report, but ultimately time was limited and any graphical enhancements were really a secondary concern. Despite this, I really wanted to add them and I think it does enough to achieve the overall atmosphere that I had envisaged, as demonstrated in the below comparison with a Daggerfall screenshot:


Aesthetic comparison between Daggerfall (left) and prototype (right).

The prototype initially starts into the table view where a map of the generated world is shown that can be rotated and zoomed in/out for examination. At a key press the camera moves into the first-person mode and plonks the player into the world. Worlds can be generated in first-person mode but it’s much more intuitive to do it in the table view. By tweaking the various settings in the UI i.e. noise values, town frequency and tree density; worlds can be tailored to whatever style you want, although currently you have to understand each of the noise settings and their influence on the generation process, to create something you have in mind. Failing that though, there’s trial and error. Ultimately, I’ll add predefined terrain settings that can be selected to simplify this process since it’s really not intuitive to know how ‘lacunarity’, ‘gain’ or ‘frequency’ for instance will effect the world, but academically, it’s quite useful to have them directly tweak-able. A seed value can be directly entered into the UI, with every unique value resulting in a unique world.

I hope at some point to continue with the project. There will be a hiatus for the foreseeable future while I work on other things. There is near infinite scope for the project, with so many things to add so it’s likely something I can keep coming back to.

I also produced a nifty tool for visualising noise which could have various uses for demoing. I’ll probably get this uploaded with a download of the prototype itself at some point.

As detailed in the report, the prototype uses various art assets (models/textures) sourced online via Creative Commons license. The project is for non-commercial use and many art assets are effectively placeholders used to finish the prototype during my studies.



Update and MSc Results

It’s been 8 months since my last post and since then I have become a dad, completed my masters, relocated and become a programmer in the games industry! So, there’s been much to talk about but little time to do it. It’s been a crazy year.

Work is keeping me extremely busy, as is family life, so with what little time I do get I tend to try and keep my hand in with gaming. Having said this, I have a large backlog of games to play through including Fallout 4 which I’ve yet to even install. Due to all the above, this blogs been a little abandoned, though it’s served a very useful purpose of helping to display my portfolio and get me a job, something I’d strongly recommend any aspiring game developer to do. I’ll endeavor to post more now I have my weekends back and hopefully useful things and not just…stuff? Hopefully I’ll be getting back into some hobby programming projects I’m wanting to do such as some WebGL ray tracing stuff for this site, and I’m sure I can put some good tutorials together that will benefit all.

So, university then. It’s over. Done. 4 years of very hard toil and the question is was it worth it? A resounding YES, is the answer of course. I’m lucky now that I’m in a position where 4 years ago I was hoping to be, building invaluable experience working in industry.

The University of Hull has provided an excellent place of learning over the course of my BSc and MSc and importantly opened the doors needed to get me into what is a highly competitive industry. I’d like to thank all of the lectures, supervisors and staff that I’ve worked with over the years who made it a very positive experience. A good university is of course important in determining how much you take away from your time studying, but I will say that THE most important thing is your determination and self-motivation. You can coast through a CompSci degree, and take very little from it. Hopefully my grades demonstrate the fact I put my all into it, and at times, particularly in the MSc, the work load was intense. Intense like driving home at dawn from the lab having done 16hrs of red bull and vending machine fueled programming, knowing you need to get back to the lab in a few hours to do it all over again.

MSc Results:

Here are the results as per the University’s module results site:

With an overall average of 89.9%, this means I should be comfortably in the distinction category for my masters which I am thrilled about.

The big module for the MSc is the dissertation project and having done a pure graphics project for my BSc in CUDA ray tracing, I decided to suggest my own topic this time around and decided upon procedural content generation in RPG’s, a subject I have long been fascinated with. The scope of the project was massive, including the design and implementation of my own 3D DirectX11 engine and the creation of an explorable procedurally generated world with procedurally generated dungeons. Needless to say, the process nearly killed me and the report writing was also tough going since I was moving house with a new born and also working full-time! Considering all this, I achieved a great deal of what I had set out to do, as well as surprising my two supervisors quite considerably when they saw just how much I managed to get done!

I’ll be aiming to make a separate post regarding the dissertation project soon, as well as putting together some sort of video of it to complete my degree portfolio.

The project I’m currently working on at work is really exciting and I wish I could talk about it, but unfortunately I can’t…yet. I can say that since starting work I’ve done some business orientated Objective-C, worked with Unity and on my current project, I’m working on a very large mixed code-base of mainly C with bits of C++. Lets just say I’m glad I took note of all that hex, bit masking and bit-wise operations you can easily not pay attention to at Uni, despite being very much absent in more modern managed languages and coding styles.





3D Pinball Game – Development Project



This is a 3D pinball game developed as part of my MSc Computer Science. The module was a group project and we were tasked with developing a 3D pinball without using an existing propriety game engine (such as Unity or Unreal etc.).

I developed an easy to use DX11 renderer for use by the group and we incorporated the Bullet physics and FMOD libraries to put the game together.

The time constraints on the project were intense and so this was put together in around 10 days (some crazy hours ensued). Many cans of energy drink and cups of coffee later this was the result. Its not exactly pinball FX but factoring in timeframe and tool constraints, I’m pleased with how it turned out. I wouldn’t expect a public release any time soon though!


Bullet physics is pretty fiddly to get up and running and took a bit of research to get to grips with. As with most open source libraries there are many conflicting sources of documentation and versions floating around which often serve only to confuse, but for a free physics library you can hardly complain.

I worked on quite a bit of the project, putting together the renderer and framework that the group used for production. I programmed the graphics, did any required artwork (base textures were sourced online) and worked a lot on the important physics such as the flippers and launch mechanism. With more time we could have improved quite a bit, as it stands the physics aren’t on a fixed time step and neither is it on an independent thread, therefore bad things happen if the frame rate gets low. For this reason it’s designed to run more or less perfectly on the system we developed it on and we were marked on, but it would need a fair bit of improvement to get it working nicely on any system and I doubt I’ll have time for that any time soon.

The project was probably my first real taste of game dev crunch or ‘death march’. Really it was worse, with 16+ hour days, often leaving the lab after sunrise. In the end, I think it was worth it though and I had actually always quite fancied trying my hand at developing a pinball game!

PS. Thanks to the guys (and gal) for such a hard-working group.

Cross-Platform Game Engine


In the first semester of my MSc Computer Science degree as part of the Games Development Architectures module we were tasked to design and implement a cross-platform game engine. A game would also be made using the engine.

The chosen platforms were a Windows PC and Windows Phone 8 device. I decided that considering Microsoft had developed a Universal Application framework for targeting both of these, I would utilise it. This was good from the point of view that it simplified the cross-platform compatibility, but introduced a few limitations (namely having to work with the Windows RT platform and resultant consequences for dealing with inputs via ‘ref classes’ etc.. Coming from experience with Win32 desktop programs, Windows RT feels very different to program for and much less flexible, but then again Win32 really does need some modernisation.


Project Details:

  • Engine coded in C++ (Visual Studio).
  • DirectX11 rendering engine component coded from scratch.
  • HLSL shaders.
  • The Universal App framework used to contain the code solution and deploy to both platforms.

We were given a design specification for a simple game called ‘Tunnel Terror’. It involved the player having to control a vehicle/object through a tunnel, avoiding various obstacles. The speed would gradually increase the longer the player survived and any collisions with obstacles would result in death. Score was determined by length of survival. I decided to add various extras including power ups such as coins and a randomised speed-up/slow-down. The game would need to play on both a PC and Windows Phone 8 device, allowing for the differing input controls to play. I decided the PC would utilise keyboard whereas the phone would rely on the accelerometer (tilt) sensor to manoeuvre the player through the tunnel. The PC also required a 2 player mode. Main menu, high score table and game over screens would be needed as well as Multiple camera modes such as first-person, third-person and death fly-by cameras.


Although marks were given for the game implementation and extra features, much of the module was graded based on the engine design, implementation and accompanying report. My report justified the design based on four principles of games architecture, namely ‘Simplicity’, ‘Reusability’, ‘Abstractness’ and ‘Modularity’. Below is an example of the UML design used for my engines platform independent rendering component, with examples given to how behaviour could be derived for both DirectX and OpenGL.


In the report we also had to research how we would have implemented the game on next-generation architecture such as the PlayStation 4 and how the engine would deal with the addition of different kinds of input devices.

There were some marks awarded for graphics quality and since the target platforms were both Microsoft, DirectX11 was used for the graphics. I implemented normal bump mapping to give it a nice look when flying down the tunnel. I also randomly changed the textures of each tunnel section and reset them to the end of the sequence once passing behind the frustum to give the impression of an endless tunnel with non-repeating sections.2

Annoyingly because the game is a Windows Store application there is no runnable executable so without actually publishing it to the Store and getting past all the certification requirements I cannot put it up anywhere to play! What is worse though is that currently I know of no screen capture software that can even record footage of the game running (at a decent FPS), both Fraps and Bandicam do not capture it since it’s not a desktop application. Bandicam does have desktop capture support but this also didn’t seem able to see the game and is not suitable for high frame-rate applications. So, as it stands I can’t make a video of the game running without hardware recording. Hopefully, this is something that won’t always be the case.

I was very pleased with the final engine and received a 92% grade for the module. I have since improved upon it and reused design elements for subsequent modules such as Real-time Graphics. I think a lot of what I coded for this project will be extremely useful going forward.




Bit’s Blitz – Puzzle Game

Bit's Blitz - Puzzle Game

Bit’s Blitz – Puzzle Game

In the third year of my Computer Science BSc (2013) as part of the Commercial Games Development module, we were placed into groups and tasked to produce a computer themed game designed for children. Each of the group members had to produce a game design document, one of which would be chosen for the group to develop. My group consisted of me, Aaron Ridge, Michael Killingbeck, Andrew Woodrow, Joshua Twigg and Alex Lynch.

The group decided to go with my game design which was inspired by the classic puzzle game Chip’s Challenge, with the idea being to reimagine it and modernise the graphics.

Game synopsis:
 “‘Bit’s Blitz’ is a fun 2D puzzle game following the escapades of its protagonist ‘Bit’. The game takes place across a series of levels increasing gradually in difficulty, gradually introducing new game-play elements. The player controls ‘Bit’ around a grid, constrained by a series of maze-like blocks and hazards. ‘Bit’ must successfully collect all the computer components that are scattered around the level and then repair his computer to proceed to the next level.”

Developed using C# and the XNA framework for the PC platform (Windows XP+).


The nice thing about this game design was that we could focus on the puzzle aspect of the game, time and imagination permitting, due to the simple overhead on technical implementation. The tile-based game engine was written from scratch using XNA, utilising XML data structures to store level data and a custom made loader. A cool and free little program called Tiled was used to ‘paint’ the level layout and export it into our XML format. I’d strongly recommend this to any considering 2D tile-based games for constructing levels, having said that, it’s a nice programming exercise to develop your own editor if you get the chance.

All gameplay aspects including animations and particle systems were programmed for the game, using no other libraries except XNA. I designed the game framework based on the State Design Pattern which worked out really well and continue to use it for game development.

With the use of XML and Tiled it allowed us to churn out level designs at an alarming rate and the final product has over 20 levels! Not bad considering the 2 week development time. When giving the presentation of the game, we literally only had time to demonstrate about 5 of the best levels, odd considering level variety tends to be in short supply for prototypes.

Sound effects were added (free assets) however I’ve removed these from the video and added music since honestly, they weren’t brilliant! The above gameplay video demonstrates various levels (played by me). I could barely remember most of the levels so it’s pretty much a blind play-through with some genuine mistakes.

For the project we all chipped in and the group worked well together. The game was never released or published anywhere, though if anyone is interested I could stick the executable on here for download.

My BSc in Computer Science – Results Summary

The past three years at the University of Hull have flown incredibly fast; A good sign, that I have thoroughly enjoyed my time there studying for my BSc in Computer Science with Games Development. In fact, it was probably one of the best decisions I ever made, despite how hard it was to take up the challenge as a 27 year old with commitments and nearly 10 years since prior academic study.

My plan will now be to continue on at Hull University to study a post-graduate MSc degree in Computer Science. Relocation and seeking employment will be on the cards aferwards, but I can rest assured having ‘put my all’ into the past several years, I am proud of the results I have acheived and I certainly never expected to do as well as I did, acheiving a First Class honours degree. Below is a summary of my results from the past three years:

Year 1

Module Mark Credit
Computer Systems 73 20
IT and Professional Skills 80 20
Programming 1 92 20
Programming 2 96 20
Quantitative Methods for Computing 87 20
Software Engineering and HCI 77 20
Year 1 average

Year 1 average

Year 2

Module Mark Credit
2D Graphics and User Interface Design 89 20
Advanced Programming 83 20
Artificial Intelligence 78 20
Networking and Games Architecture 88 20
Simulation and 3D Graphics 94 20
Systems Analysis, Design and Process 83 20
Year 2 average

Year 2 average

Year 3

Module Mark Credit
Commercial Games Development 81 20
Games Programming & Advanced Graphics 94 20
Mobile Devices and Applications 83 20
Visualization 86 20
Development Project 88 40
Year 3 average

Year 3 average


A ‘Mature’ Reflection:

To any people out there reading this who may fall into the mature student catagory of being a little older and thinking of studying a degree, I would say this; If you are passionate about the subject that you want to study, have proven your interest in it through personal projects, and can cope with the lower standard of living while you study, then go for it and don’t look back. It’s not just about career development, but also a time of personal acheivement and self discovery, where you can find much about your own abilities that perhaps you never knew you had. I think many people can muddle on in life not knowing if they would be any good at ‘this’ or ‘that’. A formal degree can help answer this, giving you confidence in that discipline, which can be it’s own reward. When you realise that generally speaking, unless your lucky enough to be the next Einstein, people achieve great things not through raw intellect or genius, but ‘hard work’ and effort. In this regards, mature students probably have a motivational advantage, since they have more to lose, less time to dawdle and life experience to help them focus.


OpenGL Cross-platform PC/PSP Game Coursework

Last semester as part of the Advanced Graphics module of my CS degree at Hull University, we were tasked with a group project to produce a cross-platform OpenGL mini-game for the PC and Sony PSP based on a specification. The game premise was to move around a 3D ‘maze’ consisting of four rooms and connecting corridors, avoiding a patrolling AI that would shoot you if within its line of sight. The objective was to collect 3 keys to activate a portal to escape and beat the game.

The groups were selected at complete random with 4 members. As per usual, group coursework assignments are particularly difficult due to the extra concerns of motivating members and assigning work and by year 3 of University, you get a good idea on the best way of operating within them to secure good grades. I went in with the mindset of doing as much work as possible after we assigned tasks. Hopefully each would carry out their allocated work, if not, I’d just go ahead and do it, no fuss. Luckily one chap in my group was a friend and he did an excellent job coding the AI, mini-map and sound while I worked on coding the geometry, camera, lighting and player functionality etc.


Mini-maze model

Static environment lighting

Static environment lighting

Cross-Platform Limitations:

Having worked with OpenGL and shaders last year for my 3D ‘The Column‘ project, it was some-what limiting when I realised that the PSP didn’t support them and that fragment-based lighting was a no go. With one requirement of the game being a torchlight effect that illuminated the geometry, this would therefore mean that for PSP compatibility, vertex-based lighting would need to be implemented and that meant tessellation of primitives to prevent the lighting looking very blocky and…well very 90’s. Luckily the PSP did atleast have support for VBO (Vertex Buffer Objects) which meant effectively each tessellated model could loaded onto the graphics card only once to improve performance.

Unified Code

An interesting aspect of this project was the required consideration for a consolidated code-base that where possible allowed shared functionality for both the PC and PSP platforms i.e limiting how much platform specific code was used. This was essential since the game would be a single C++ Solution for both platforms.

I designed the code structure based around principles Darren McKie (the course lecturer) described, and produced the following class diagram that reflects the final structure:

Unified Cross-platform Class Diagram

Unified Cross-platform Class Diagram

The majority of game code resides in ‘Common Code’ classes that are instantiated by each particular platform ‘Game’ object. Certain code such as API rendering calls were kept platform specific but made use of the common classes where necessary. A particular nice way of ensuring the correct platform specific object was instantiated was carried out using ‘#Ifdef’, ‘#ifndef’ preprocessor statements and handled by a ‘ResourceManager’ class.

As mentioned earlier, per-vertex lighting had to be implemented due to PSP compatibility. A primitive with a low number of vertices would thus result in very blocky lighting. To prevent this I created a tessellation function that subdivided each primitives vertices into many more triangles. I played around with the tessellation depth to find how many iterations of subdivision could be achieved before inducing lag and was very happy with the lighting result considering there is no fragment shader; a given for today’s modern pipelined-based rendering.

Active Portal

Active Portal

The PSP implementation proved more tricky due to getting to grips with the PSP SDK and having access to very little documentation, however the game was successfully implemented onto a PSP device and ran with decent performance after compressing the textures down and removing geometry tessellation to allow for the PSP’s limited memory capacity.

The game was written in C++ and  the following libraries and software were used:

  • GXBase OpenGL API
  • Sony PSP SDK
  • OpenAL
  • Visual Studio 2012
  • Paint .Net

The “dumbing down”of the games industry

Technology has moved on in the games industry, that’s for certain. Hardware, programming languages and business processes have all improved i’m sure many would agree, but does the Nth fold increase in technology also translate 1-to-1 to game play and design?

I’ve been thinking a lot about that question and I’d first like to set some context by going back to a time before PC gaming was conceived or even the first 90’s era consoles were around to change the demographic of the average games consumer forever. The days of the Commodore Amiga in fact is what I want to go back to, an era that few under the age of 25 will have ever experienced during it’s peak. The Amiga i’m confident in saying was massively ahead of it’s time in terms of hardware and gaming innovation, and not just a little bit. Built on top of the great success of it’s precursor the Commodore 64, it’s perhaps unsurprising why the system has such a mythical “stuff of dreams” status now, like did it really happen or was it just my imagination?

A Past Era:

Launched in 1985 (Amiga 1000), specs wise it featured an 8-bit 4 channel stereo sound chip, CPU co-processors (unheard of at the time) and graphics capable of up to 4096 colours at a max resolution of 640×512. These specs were incredible and it took other systems such as the NES or PC DOS gaming over 7 years to get on par with the Amiga. Now it’s all good listing specs but lets put that into perspective by comparing with another system of the day:

Shadow of the Beast – Amiga – 1989

Ninja Gaiden 2 – 1990 – NES

For reasons like the comparison above, it’s startling to me that so few gamers today have perhaps even heard of the Amiga, and strange how the NES and Sega Master System shook the world of gaming forever when they arrived despite being hugely inferior. To me as a kid in the early 90’s, I looked at the NES and thought…whats the big deal, I’ve been playing better looking and sounding games then that for years!  Shrugged my shoulders and went back to playing my dads Amiga 500. I guess looking back I was lucky to have access to an Amiga and be part of the game hobbyist scene back in the day when your average person just didn’t play computer games.

Ultimately hardware isn’t everything and the reason why the consoles made such an impact boils down to price and the fact that children could have one in their bedroom (myself included). Gaming wasn’t just for powerful multimedia systems anymore, consoles brought relatively cheap systems that every family could afford to have and thus marked the final death knell of the Amiga platform by the mid 90’s. Commodore had squandered a huge technological advantage for years and it’s failure to react to rising competition brought it to it’s knees. It’s also worth noting that as a games platform the Amiga was massively successful in the UK and across Europe, but did less successfully in the US primarily due to a larger interest in the Japanese arcade gaming culture rather then home computing. Thus the majority of Amiga games (of which there are literally thousands) were made in Europe and in fact the UK pioneered much of the games programming advances of the age that led to some greatly successful games. British studios like Sensible Software and the Bitmap Brothers, and publishers like Psygnosis are legendary and we owe them a lot for what they achieved back in the day, much of which is taken for granted now and forgotten as the fast moving games industry moves ever on like a enraged bull, never stopping to look back at lessons already learned decades ago.

Chaos Engine – Amiga – Bitmap Brothers – Subtle complexities to a simple game

The Stifling of Innovation and Creativity:

To the topic at hand and the question I started the article with. Has game play and design regressed since those days and if so why? Bluntly and unequivocally yes in my opinion,  but the why of it will take some explanation. To understand why you have to look into the past of gaming hence my above context on the Amiga, it’s unavoidable and not simply nostalgic musings. It’s the logical thing to do when analyzing something that has been great in the past, and has become less great over time. As admitted, graphically things have improved, but the root of problem is something that has caused a stifling of innovation leading to regurgitation of the same copy-cat game over and over with different artwork for years on end. The end of the 90’s was perhaps the last true great period of games innovation and creative freedom that professional games developers had. You only have to look at the quality titles released on the PC between 95 and 99 to realise this.

I’ve researched various articles and read interviews featuring leading people who worked in the earlier days and you see similarities in how they view the industry and how it has changed for developers. The core of it seems to be due to the refusal of the increasingly powerful publishers to fund games that at not a 100% safe bet (Call of Duty, Halo etc) and this has led to a massive drop in innovation that is only now perhaps being turned around by the injection of new creative blood by the Indie developer scene. Fueling the increasingly tight and controlling grip of publishers is the increasing vast sums of money that the industry now generates. Many people ARE aware of the lack of innovation but perhaps feel that there’s just no ideas left? Well there’s plenty of ideas around, the problem is that no large publisher would touch it unless it’s proven and that’s the crux of it.

Populous 2 - Amiga - Bullfrog

Populous 2 – Amiga – Bullfrog

John Hare, a founder of Sensible Software (one of the biggest and most successful games company’s of the 80’s and early 90’s) gave a frank and interesting interview on You Tube where he discusses that during those days, publishers were happy to have talented people on board and they pretty much left you to make what you were passionate about and encourage you to push your creativity. It’s not surprising then that if you were ever motivated to go back and play Amiga games now and get over the aging visuals, you’d find a myriad of game genres, some still today undefinable such was the creative freedom back then. This issue of publishers forcing developers to copy existing games, adding just a new paint job is paramount to what is holding back the games industry in my opinion. Yes there’s Kickstarter and Steam Greenlight and they are all well and good, but I feel that the large publishers need to have a dramatic culture change if were are ever truly going to return to a golden age of innovation in game play concepts, design and execution. Perhaps the Indie scene will be the catalyst that fuels the publishers to change and allow more freedom to professional studios?

While the Amiga had it’s day, its fair to say that it was a very 2D orientated  platform and with the coming of 3D and it’s dominance in professional studios it’s not surprising that small man teams of maybe 3 or 4 can no longer produce the par standard graphical expectations in games expected for modern AAA title publishers, whom require dozens of developers and artists and millions invested to produce some of the photo realistic wizardry modern shelf titles feature. But are the incredible graphics and animation a fair trade for the disadvantages it brings?

Level design is something that has most certainly suffered from the introduction of vastly detailed environments now expected in any FPS game. It’s a simple matter of complexity, the more you introduce into a scene, the longer it takes to produce. The longer it takes the less time you have to make complicated and intelligent level design. Thus many “on rails” shooters are just that, a monorail ride with the occasional dead end to “confuse” said player and following satellite navigation way points that show up on your automap, even if the game is set in a medieval fantasy universe *cough* Skyrim.

Personally speaking photo real graphics are not a fair trade and ultimately it’s the game play that keeps you playing a game long after you’ve become desensitized to the pretty visuals. Many hugely successful Indie titles have shown this, surely it’s time for the big AAA studios and publishers to say “let’s strip down the cluttered visual complexity, take a risk and focus on game play “. Wouldn’t that be something? That and actually playing games rather then spending 30% of your time watching dialogue cut scenes. At times I think games have forgotten their roots in the arcade, and have borrowed far to heavily from Hollywood.

A change in audience & social gaming:

Another key factor in the the evolution of the games industry is tied with in turn the evolution of it’s audience. Back in the Hobbyist days of gaming, a period i’d widely class from 1980-1999, most people who sat indoors playing video games were looked at a bit strangely. They were geeks, nerds, predominantly male and it most certainly wasn’t a cool thing to do. They were probably above average at school and i’d be as bold to say statistically more intelligent or at least have an intrigue in things they didn’t understand. This would manifest itself in a way that if you presented a challenging game to a geek, they would be much more likely to try and figure it out and spend time trying to overcome the complexities, like a piece of homework or a maths question. A less motivated individual with less intrigue would put the game down, upset about it being too hard and never play it again. Therefore the audience in a nutshell back then was more mature and forgiving about games and it allowed a degree of freedom to developers to really go to town on sophisticated game play elements that would take time to master and learn, but ultimately paid off long term over simple repetitive games.

Now as pretty much most are aware, nowadays games on the whole are streamlined and simplified for the new average audience demographic, whom is not a geek, nerd or in fact *shock* actually male. Social gaming has brought women into the gaming consumer audience and rightly so, women should be part of it. Men too have lapped up the new social gaming phenomenon but irrespective of gender which is irrelevant, the key point is that the “nerd gamer” is no longer the average demographic and thus games are now being effectively aimed at less patient, casual orientated “non-gamers”. Social games are not games in their truest purest sense, they are not escapism, or adrenaline pumping or a visual feast or inspiring, they are simply a feedback-response stimulus loop that passes time for the bored individual. Engineered game play featuring staggeringly simple repetitive tasks with a carrot style reward at the end. Real games ARE more then that aren’t they? I think so.


The whole evolution of the industry is a double-edged sword. It’s not all bad certainly, there’s never been an easier time to get into the games industry and there’s certainly a lot more jobs around with better pay then there used to be, however along with vast sums of money has come the bureaucracy that is rife within what is essentially a creative industry and there are startling parallels with the movie industry. Like with games, the increasingly powerful few have begun to control too much of what directors make and the many unneeded remake movies are effectively synonymous with the copy-cat games made today in the games industry. But, I wont lay the blame just on publishers. John Hare mentioned something regarding the fact that the industry is saturated with content and most of it not good or to a high enough quality. This waters down the expectation of what a good game actually is, and with more and more game developers coming into the mix this could spiral further. His solution? Less developers/designers and who are to a higher standard. Is that the answer? I’m not sure but poor games will in-turn inspire more poor games, it’s a vicious circle that we must break and ultimately in my opinion it should start from the top AAA studios and work it’s way down, not the bottom up.

It’s a topic I feel passionate about and there’s no easy answers but that’s my take on it and an opinion from someone who has played far too many games over the past 29 years and hope to influence the games industry in some way (even if just a nano) by making games myself. I hope that in time, developer creativity will flow however it wants wherever it wants and only our imagination will limit where games can take us.

Lemmings – Amiga – DMA Design

Hypermorph Wins Three Thing Game Competition

So it’s been a frantic couple of weeks, plenty of course-work to do and last weekend was the much anticipated Three Thing Game competition. For anyone not in the know this is held each semester at Hull University and challenges teams to come up with a game based around three auctioned words per team. Judges then score based on the games relevance to the words and the quality/fun of the game. The competition involves a marathon 24 hour programming session to get your game finished on the day. This one was the biggest yet with 39 teams competing. We really couldn’t have asked for better “Things” because a combination of good bidding and luck meant we came out with “Flying”, “Tank” and “Bombs”. Considering another team got “Teddy bear”,  “Deodorant”  and “Pop Tart” I think we did ok!

Last year we came second with Shear Carnage and and I can say that honestly this year, we really really wanted to win it. This was evident to myself just by the focus we had this year and when the day of the competition came, I think I probably left my seat half a dozen times in the whole 24 hours! In hindsight we probably took it far too seriously and as a result I think it sacrificed a lot of the enjoyment of the competition and resulted in some contention regarding ideas that seemed inevitable considering vested interests and no one leader within the team. I think on a personal note, much was learnt regarding team work and there are aspects of the planning and design process I would do differently next time. Luckily it all turned out worth it in the end and so it’s very hard to regret any decisions, but this was by no means a painless endeavour!

Me on the right, Russ in the middle, John on the left. Lee Stott at the back.

So to the game, Hypermorph is a retro-style side scrolling shooter that takes me back to my childhood days, playing classics such as Xenon 2, R-Type and Menace on the Amiga. Back then the shoot’em’up was a staple video game genre and was hugely popular, now only since the mobile platforms have taken off is the genre again feasible because it’s the perfect style of game to have a quick blast on when wanting to pass a little bit of time. The  thing that’s pretty novel in Hypermorph is the ability for the player to switch between two different forms, a spaceship and a hover tank by simply tapping the screen. We made the game using XNA (C#) for the Windows Phone 7 and coded everything ourselves (no third party libraries).

I produced the art for the game and managing both the art and doing a lot of the programming was a challenge in itself on the day, resulting in most of the art being done in the last few hours. I had a good idea in my head what the game would look like when we were bouncing the initial idea around, however my regret was that I didn’t produce any concept art for it sooner to put the rest of the team at ease; for a long time I think we were left with our own ideas for how the game would look but once I came up with the first concept drawing for the ship, the team were all in favour to my relief!

We had decided to make the game quite dark and moody but with bright weapon and explosion effects to make them really stand out. Additionally, we wanted to make the controls as hands off as possible. We learned from Shear Carnage that using touch too frequently can result in obscuring a lot of the screen so we instead went for a tilt based movement for the player and a single touch to morph between Tank and Spaceship. Importantly we set it to auto-fire constantly since you soon realise that in this genre there’s never a time you don’t want to be firing.

One feature I’m really pleased we put in was the voice effects for powerups and various other things. It adds a lot to the immersion and again, really goes back to the genres roots.

Of course we have plans to get Hypermorph out on both the WP7 and Windows 8 market ASAP but uni coursework is currently being prioritised. At the competition was Lee Stott from Microsoft and guys from the Monogame team. Lee’s encouragement was inspiring and I’d also like to thank him and Microsoft for providing the cool prizes. The Monogame guys were brilliant and we spent a fair time chatting with them regarding getting our games ported to the various platforms, they even ported Shear Carnage and my Robocleaner game for us to show us how easy it is! (albeit there’s some coding required to get them ready for the marketplace).

Ultimately we are going to want to put in a few more levels, enemy types, weapons and powerups before getting it on the marketplace, but the good news is it will most certainly be free!

All in all it was overwhelming and the encouragement we have received from Lee Stott, Rob Miles and the MonoGame guys was great. Ultimately this is why I gave up a career in IT to get into the games industry, because there’s so much satisfaction in putting your heart and soul into producing a game and then seeing others get a lot enjoyment from it. Winning the Peoples Choice award as well as the judges award was the icing on the cake and I’d like to thank everyone who voted for us and gave us great feedback.

Stay tuned for more Hypermorph news soon…

Robocleaner out on Windows Phone

Finally Robocleaner is now available for download on the Windows Phone marketplace. Check it out, feedback welcome. There’s a “try” option to play the first 3 levels on each mode for free and the Online Leaderboards function in the trial mode too.

MS Store Link:

As my first solo title that I’ve worked on it was a great learning process and gave me a good idea how tough it must be being a full-time indie developer, especially if your a one-man team doing design, coding, graphics and sound. It’s certainly encouraged me to continue and it’s a shame that XNA is pretty much being dropped in WP8 since a lot of the XNA specific skills I’ve picked up may not be much use in the future (without Monogame at least).

My aim for the next couple of semesters at Uni with time permitting, is to work on more mobile game titles, likely simpler ones (Shear Carnage) with less physics and AI coding. One thing I learned is that just because you have a cool path-finding or a realistic wall bounce algorithm, it may be technically impressive but it really doesn’t impact the game overall and it’s better probably to make games where more complex mechanics aren’t required to make the game fun. I do enjoy doing AI and the physics side of things but with mobile games, it’s better to get the game done ASAP and out on the market so people can have fun playing it. Next time I’ll be aiming to get two games released in the time it took me to make Robocleaner!